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Todos os posts de Fábio Bertato

A lógica do país dos elfos

Opinião Pública | 04/01/2017 | | IFE CAMPINAS

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Nas histórias fantásticas uma lei como a da gravidade pode ser quebrada, mas uma lei clássica como a da não-contradição ainda costuma permanecer inalterada. Nos contos de fada, uma criança pode voar, mas ainda não é possível a ela voar e não voar no mesmo instante, sob o mesmo aspecto. Um garoto pode ou não envelhecer, mas continua idêntico a si mesmo e distinto de qualquer outra criança. Um pequeno príncipe pode até ser o único regente de um asteróide, mas um desenho necessariamente ou representa ou não representa uma jibóia digerindo um elefante.

Se tais princípios lógicos são contextuais, pressupostos ou subjacentes às narrativas, às vezes a lógica é explicitamente empregada ou destacada. Por exemplo, na obra o Leão, a Feiticeira e o Guarda-Roupa, Pedro e Susana buscam o conselho do Professor a respeito de Lúcia, que afirmava ter encontrado Nárnia. O Professor exclama: “Lógica! Por que não ensinam mais lógica nas escolas?”. Raciocina sobre três possibilidades: ou Lúcia está mentindo; ou ela está louca; ou ela está falando a verdade. Ora, Lúcia não mente e obviamente não está louca, logo, devem assumir que ela está dizendo a verdade. E mais tarde acrescenta: “Eu gostaria de saber o que estas crianças aprendem na escola!”.

As perguntas do Professor são relevantíssimas, especialmente para nós brasileiros, que sentimos na pele o declínio do sistema educacional, crise após crise, reforma após reforma. Os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais praticamente não contemplam o ensino da lógica propriamente dita, atribuindo ao ensino de matemática a tarefa de desenvolver o “raciocínio lógico-matemático”. Pobres professores de matemática! Além da árdua tarefa de ensinar equações, funções, figuras planas e espaciais, etc, ainda lhes atribuem a responsabilidade de prover os rudimentos para o pensamento racional, anterior ao fazer matemático. Em resumo, pouquíssimos brasileiros, sejam estudantes, professores ou outros profissionais, conhecem efetivamente alguma coisa de lógica. Paradoxalmente, enquanto o Brasil produz pesquisa em matemática e em lógica de primeiro nível, a maioria da população não possui habilidade mínima nesses domínios.

Tal estado de coisas é muito grave. Se estiverem corretos os autores de subestimadas épocas ao afirmarem que o ser humano é o “animal racional” e de que a lógica é a “arte ou ciência que dirige a razão”, então somos obrigados a nos indagar sobre as consequências da carência de estudos de fundamentos de lógica. Se a lógica é a ética do pensamento e do discurso, como está nosso comportamento no domínio racional?

“Mas, a lógica não é tudo! Nem tudo é racional!”, podem dizer algumas pessoas, especialmente os dados à preguiça de pensar. De fato, a lógica não dá conta de tudo, mas consegue lidar com muita coisa e pode evitar ou pelo menos evidenciar uma série de aberrações. Por exemplo, na história recente, vimos o desenrolar de um processo de Impeachment. Nesses casos, nossa Carta Magna garante a existência de duas penas, a saber, a perda do cargo cumulada com a inabilitação, por oito anos, para o exercício de função pública. De um ponto de vista lógico, a norma constitucional poderia ser representada da seguinte maneira: “Se A, então B e C”, isto é, “Se houve crime de responsabilidade, então deve haver perda de cargo e inabilitação”. Como temos “A” (considerou-se a ré culpada de crime de responsabilidade), aplicando a regra denominada “Modus Ponens”, deveríamos ter “B e C”, isto é, “perda de cargo e inabilitação”. Todavia, magicamente temos “B e Não-C” (perda de cargo sem inabilitação). Parece que foi aplicada ou a ignorância; ou a lógica dos acordos; ou o rabo preso.

Apesar de sua relevância, a lógica não é uma ferramenta criativa, por isso necessitamos da imaginação para nos completar. Bons livros são um tesouro inestimável para o desenvolvimento da razão e da imaginação. Que tal uma viagem com Alice pelo País das Maravilhas para aquecer? Ou vamos deixar que “cortem nossas cabeças”?

Fábio Maia Bertato é Licenciado em Matemática, Doutor em Filosofia, Superintendente do IFE Campinas e Pesquisador do Centro de Lógica, Epistemologia e História da Ciência da Unicamp (fmbertato@cle.unicamp.br)

Nationalism for electoral river ferry

Sem Categoria | 10/08/2015 | |

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Hot treason against the country’s subway surfers hack politics, patriotism, seeing no need to be concerned nor any major changes should be expected. Political and electoral equations to analyze the results on this side do gesture.

In Uttar Pradesh, Bengal and Assam in the next year, given that this year’s election shows that Honen, it was bound to be bustling. All their political interest political loaves are baking. The government that came to power with many promises yet two years has failed pixel gun 3d hack almost on economic and international fronts. While the ever vocal leaders are becoming a bane. Whether or Adityanath sarakshi chef.

His election to see the old track record shows that before every election to polarize somebody is throwing dice. Take the poll, then it was ‘love jihad’ issues such as air beef up for the Bihar Assembly.

But these will not get to see much more success, this time in search of a new facade is designed to patriotism. Otherwise there was no need to divide the certificate of patriotism. There are many issues in the country and even those can be brought into the mainstream discussion.

Also Buundelkhand Vidarbha farmers suicides are continuing it is not visible to anyone. BJP is very well know that patriotism is an issue that can be easily deployed across electoral ferry.

BJP leaders on the other side of the Left when it comes to JNU told gangstar vegas hack the den of terror, the student union president Kanhaiya Kumar’s arrest on charges of treason and he has a new life in it Fun.

While everyone knows that this government of the Left in Bengal so long despite his condition became worse. However JNU direct government intervention in the minds of a large intellectual class hatred color switch hack for the BJP have to fill out. Left will try to capitalize on it now.

One thing that all of these issues to the general public do not vary case clicker hack with pandemonium. Neither nationalism nor understand her treason. Then put him to death is 200 rupees a kg tur dal. After all there is to the general public that I’m a patriot himself comes seeking votes, tell him to ask the question on price rise and corruption. Shot on the border facing the country as much as he is the man to die Vivs farmer today is the mole. A student at the University of Pdnhen is equally patriotic.

Is simply the difference in the work. Fights at the border, the country’s second ground breaking chest fills the stomach and the third independent clash of clans hack review of government policies, he is quick-witted. Everyone is capable of seeing the issue from a logical perspective. The knee should not have a voice.

Raahgiri Day- Freedom on the streets

Sem Categoria | 09/08/2015 | |

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Raahgiri Day is India’s first car-free resident activity that started in Gurgaon on Nov 17, 2013. The development was considered and is trademarked with the Raahgiri Foundation, comprising of local inhabitants from five associations- I Am Gurgaon, EMBARQ India, Heritage School Gurgaon, Duplays Gurgaon, Pedalyatri. It was not long from there on that this was organised as a weekly event – that closes paths to automobiles for the purpose of conservative and element transport, arrived on the planet’s second greatest city, New Delhi. The NDMC together with the New Delhi Police Office drove the recreation center in encouraging auto free Sundays in the inner circle of New Delhi’s Connaught Put each clash of clans hack week, beginning thirteenth July 2014. Broadening the improvement from Gurgaon, color switch hack masses 800,000 people, to New Delhi, people 22 million, has surely been a monstrous hop, one that exhorts us that reorienting urban regions around people – not cars – is achievable.

On twelfth July, 2015, this development finished one year in Connaught Place. Moving from a turnout of 5000 individuals, on first ‪‎Raahgiri Day in Connaught marvel future fight hack place, to 20,000 individuals and extending to‪ Dwarka, ‪‎Rohini and ‎East Delhi territories in Delhi, the development has demonstrated an enormous development. This has likewise begun New Delhi on a critical way towards fighting air contamination and enhancing general wellbeing, and moved all of India one stage nearer towards being a model of manageable urban improvement for other rising economies.

Delhi is fighting air defilement that is more loathsome than Beijing while at the same clash of clans hack time finding that under 5% of women feel safe in the city’s open spaces. Pioneers have been viably filtering for imaginative ways to deal with exhibit its tenants that it is possible, with open sponsorship, to make the megacity more liveable. With Raahgiri Day, it shows up the answer has been found. Walkers play chicken with truck drivers, who avoid SUVs, which serve to keep up a vital separation from unhurried stray dairy cows. Clearly, there is an astounding nonattendance of rules and regulations, inciting inestimable fatalities consistently. As a sign of headway, more roads are being composed for higher speeds and segment line rangers hack of jobs, a slip that coordinators have made on and on in various spots.

It is clear that there is a need of more open spaces. Instantly, run of the mill Sundays, will no more be sold out. People rather than feeling detached in perspective of nonappearance of open space will now have the ability to do things, animating people to leave their shells and into the spotlight of their gathering.

Where To Spot The Best Stop For Entertainment News

Sem Categoria | 07/08/2015 | |

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With the increasing technology & virtualization, automation of things is taking place everywhere. At present, everyone wants all the facilities at fingertips. The internet has replaced all the conventional ways to access the information; hence we quickly look up to web pixel gun 3d hack when in need to gather information about anything. Unlike before, you need not wait for the newspaper to have a look on news headlines regarding national & international affairs or regarding your favorite sports or celebrity. You can access any kind of news on the web anytime. There is a unlimited vast web space where numerous of websites are present to be accessed to get information.

In today’s world, where everyone is so busy in their professional lives, it is not easy to extract some time fully subway surfers hack dedicated to go through entertainment news that interests you. To solve this, you can read news in-between your regular work time by browsing some particular websites which provide authentic sources of news related to any field like politics, education, fashion, business, etc. But to choose from the pool of geometry dash hack so many websites might be difficult for you because of your busy schedule. There is one stop where you can find all news updates at one go and you will never be ignorant of any important news which shouldn’t be missed. The EUR/Electronic Urban Report is the internet’s one of big fish casino hack the prime information sources for urban entertainment, sports, and opinions. When you are restless to know the score of an ongoing match, the result of beauty contest that took place last night or the places where your favorite celebrities such as 50 Cent, Prince, Jay-Z, Snoop, LeBron, Denzel, Kobe & so on are holidaying, you can have a sneak peek into the entertainment news anytime. This is not the end; there are updates available related to White House, urban/black culture and a lot more. The interactive and easy user-interface differentiates the website from the others. You can negotiate from one news to another very quickly and have access to multiple news at a time. By using this, you can hay day hack avoid being a victim of any false ads or spam as it provides a safe web environment which prevents any unsafe elements and keeps your device safe.

There is not only website- you can browse it on any device you posses as mobile phones via using its compatible apps. With the help of its web apps you can read news even while travelling or doing any other general work which saves you a lot of time and entertains you quickly. You should not think or waste time any further and make it the stop to look for any kind of news. With deer hunter 2014 hack EUR/Electronic Urban Report, you will never be outdated of current technologies & affairs. On a lighter note, there is an additional benefit that you can impress your friends and family by sharing interesting news pieces before anyone else can.

Gaza Fundraising Charity Dinner

Sem Categoria | 06/08/2015 | |

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As a show of care and support to Gaza and the unity of Malaysia, Mon Space Group sponsored a fundraising charity dinner in conjunction with the 1Unity Malaysia castle clash hack Ambassador Search Cultural Fusion 2014 (1UMAS).

Held by Ak Marketing, the event was graced and supported by Yang Teramat Mulia Raja Dato’ Seri Yong Sofia binti Almarhum Sultan Azlan Shah, the youngest daughter of the Sultan of Perak, Sultan Azlan Shah. The dinner was held on 4 October 2014, at the grand ballroom of Vivatel Hotel. To celebrate the ethnic diversity and highlight the cultural richness of Malaysia, the event showcased performances by various cultures in Malaysia, including Malay, Indian and Dayak traditional dances. Yang Teramat Mulia Raja Dato’ Seri Yong Sofia binti Almarhum Sultan Azlan Shah also gave a speech addressing the Gaza crisis, calling for all color switch hack who were present to show their support for an important humanitarian cause.

She also applauded the organisers for celebrating Malaysia’s diverse ethnic cultures. I want to take this opportunity to thank Ak Marketing for giving us the opportunity to give back to the community, and to stand in solidarity with the people of Gaza who are afflicted by war. According to the UN Office for the Coordinations of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the 2014 Israel-Palestine conflict killed 2205 Palestinians, including at least 1483 civilians. There is also an ongoing need for humanitarian aid to be sent into the conflict zone. Civilians in Gaza are direly in need of proper sanitation, nutrition and other basic welfare.

Children are born into a climate of fear and 8 ball pool hack desperation, often suffering from severe mental trauma and physical malnutrition. Mon Space Group recognises its social responsibilities, and we felt compelled to be part of the effort in alleviating the suffering of Palestinians. In the words of Tun Dato’ Seri Dr Mahathir bin Mohamad: silence is not a choice for Gaza. We have the ability to give to charity, and we will make good use of that. Besides caring for humanitarian crises overseas, I also strongly believe in supporting local causes, especially one that concerns every single Malaysian. 1UMAS 2014 forwards a strong message of solidarity amidst trying times for Malaysia. To quote the people from Ak Marketing, the event seeks “to create awareness among our blitz brigade hack young generation of the spectrum of cultures and religion of Malaysians while bringing their talents together”.

It was absolutely delightful to see the array of different cultures, costumes and dances of Malaysian ethnicities, and I felt very proud to call myself a Malaysian. I think events such as fifa16 hack 1UMAS that seeks to highlight cultural diversity in Malaysia are extremely important: on one hand they open our eyes to see how diverse we can be in terms of culture, religion, language and customs; on the other hand it also reminds us that despite all these differences, we are all Malaysians. The fact is, we do not need to look and think the same way to love each other and be united. In fact, cultural diversity is something that we feel very proud of and want to preserve. This acceptance is exactly what makes Malaysia such a great nation.

I want to extend my sincere gratitude to all who attended and donated to charity. Mon Space Group and I look forward to more opportunities in future to serve those who are in need.